The term Brachycephalic Syndrome refers to the combination of the elongated soft palate, stenotic nares, and everted laryngeal saccules, all of which are commonly seen in these breeds.
Elongated soft palate (Figure 2) is a condition where the soft palate is too long so that the tip of it protrudes into the airway and interferes with the movement of air into the lungs.
Stenotic Nares (Figure 3a) are malformed nostrils that are narrow or collapse inward during inhalation, making it difficult for the dog to breathe through its nose.
Everted Laryngeal Saccules (Figure 4) is a condition in which tissue within the airway, just in front of the vocal cords, is pulled into the trachea (windpipe) and partially obstructs airflow.
Some dogs with brachycephalic syndrome may also have a narrow trachea (windpipe), the collapse of the larynx (the cartilages that open and close the upper airway), or paralysis of the laryngeal (throat) cartilages.